Radiometric dating of rock materials
However, although Newgrange is the most famous site within the Bru na Boinne complex in County Meath, the mound at the Knowth megalithic tomb (Newgrange's sister site) has a huge number of rock engravings around its circumference.Indeed, Knowth is reputedly home to about one third of all megalithic art in Western Europe.The most advanced pictographic techniques included spray painting, using reeds or specially hollowed bones.The colour pigments found in cave paintings were generally obtained from mineral, animal or vegetable sources (eg.Prehistoric painters also produced a significant amount of abstract signs incorporating dots, lines, and other geometric motifs.As well as this, cave paintings throughout the world include numerous symbols, ideograms, anthropomorphs and zoomorphs.Petroglyphs have been discovered all over the populated world, notably in parts of Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, southwestern North America, Northern and Western Australia, and the Iberian Peninsula.Some of these images have a special cultural and/or religious significance for the societies that created them.
These markings date from at least 290,000 BCE but are likely to be much older (c.700,000 BCE or earlier). Other early ceramics include the Yuchanyan Cave pottery (16,000 BCE) from China's Hunan province and Vela Spila pottery from Croatia.Other creatures portrayed, included: lions, mammoths, wolves, foxes, hares, hyenas, fish, reptiles, and birds.(See for instance the red ochre mammoth pictures among the Kapova Cave Paintings, 12,500 BCE.) By comparison, images of humans appear less frequently.Deeper rock carving in the form of relief sculpture also appeared at a relatively early stage, as exemplified by the famous Venus of Laussel (c.23,000 BCE) a bas-relief of a naked woman with the typical exaggerated features of a Venus statuette.Other important examples of prehistoric relief sculpture include Cap Blanc rock shelter (15,000 BCE) and Roc-aux-Sorciers (12,000 BCE), all famous for their limestone friezes; and the Tuc d'Audoubert Cave (13,500 BCE) noted for its extraordinary bison reliefs made from unfired clay.
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Prehistoric artists began by painting with their fingers.